Malik al-Ulama, Hadrat Allamah Sayyid Zafar al-Din
Qadri Jilani Razawi Bihari (1303-1382 A.H / 1886-1962 C.E)
Malik al-Ulama (King of Scholars), the major Faqih and the most erudite Muhaddith of his time and declared by Imam al Huda Ahmad Rida Khan Muhaddith Qadri (d.1340 A.H / 1921 C.E) as the Lone Master of Ilm al-Tauqeet among his contemporary scholars. ‘Ilm al-Tauqeet’ is an Islamic science that deals with the extraction and determination of Salah timings for various places. Imam Ibn Hajr Makki Shafai mentioned this Science as ‘Farz al Kifaya’ in his book "Zawajir”.
Sayyid Muhammad Zafaruddin bin Abdur Razakh Ashrafi Hanafi Bihari was born on 10th Muharram al Haram 1303 A.H corresponding to 19th October 1886 C.E at Patna, the northern Capital city of Bihar state in India. His genealogy reaches Ghawth al A'zam Muhiyuddin Abdul Qadir Jilani in Six (6) generations through his ancestor Sayyid Ibrahim bin Sayyid Abu Bakr Ghaznavi bin Sayyid Abul Qasim Abdullah bin Sayyid Mohammed Faruq bin Sayyid Abul Mansur Abdus Salam bin Sayyid Abdul Wahhab bin Shaykh Sayyid Abdul Qadir al Jilani. Sayyid Ibrahim migrated to India during the reign of Sultan Feroz Shah Tughlaq (752-790 A.H / 1351-1389 C.E) and joined the imperial army and was martyred at the Battle of Rahtas fort at Shahabad in 753 A.H / 1352 C.E.
Primary Religious Education
Shaykh Zafaruddin studied elementary Arabic and Persian books under his scholarly father Shaykh Abdur Razakh Ashrafi. Shaykh Hafiz Makhdum Ashraf, Shaykh Kabiruddin and Shaykh Abdul Latif taught him the Glorious Quran, along with other famous Arabic and Persian works. In 1316 A.H / 1898 C.E Shaykh Zafaruddin joined Madrasa Ghawsiya Hanafiya where he completed Tafsir al Jalalayn in addition to other various Islamic Sciences under eight prominent scholars.
The Foundation of Madrasa Hanafiya
In 1318 A.H / 1900 C.E, Shaykh Qazi Abdul Waheed Siddiqui Firdawsi (1289-1326 A.H), the respected father of Shaykh Qazi Abdul Wadud Siddiqui (1896-1984 C.E) and the Khalifa of Imam al Huda Ahmad Rida Khan summoned the grand meeting of Ahl us Sunnah scholars of the Indian subcontinent at Patna, Bihar against the Nadwat al-Ulama Movement. This is the same conference in which Imam Ahmad Rida Khan was bestowed and awarded with the title of Mujaddid (Revivalist) of 14th Islamic Century by more than 300 scholars.
Shaykh Qazi Abdul Waheed Siddiqui laid the foundation of Madrasa Hanafiya in 1318 A.H / 1900 C.E. at Patna for the dissemination of classical Islamic Sciences. Many excellent scholars were selected and appointed for the Divine purpose among whom included Shaykh al Muhaddithin Wasi Ahmad Muhaddith Naqshbandi Surati (d.1334 A.H / 1915 C.E). Within a short time, Madrasa Hanafiya made a remarkable progress in achieving its objectives and goals and reached the height of fame in 1320 A.H / 1902 C.E.
Madrasa Hanafiya, under the able guidance of Shaykh Qazi Abdul Waheed Firdawsi also used to publish an Islamic Journal named “Tuhfa e Hanafiya bi Mukhzin e Tahqiq” for many years. This Journal also published many of Imam Ahmad Rida’s works and served Islam and Ahlus Sunnah immensely.
Shaykh al-Muhaddithin Wasi Ahmad Muhaddith Surati
On 25th Jamad al Akhir 1320 A.H / 1902 C.E Malik al-Ulama Zafaruddin Bihari joined Madrasa Hanafiya and studied under the famous Hadith Master Shaykh Wasi Ahmad Muhaddith Surati the following Hadith books: Musnad Imam al A’zam, Mishkat al Masabih and Mulla Jalal. After serving the Madrasa for two long years Shaykh al Muhaddithin took leave and left for his hometown Pili Bhit due to old age and failing health. Here, he founded Madrasa Dar al Hadith.
During this period Malik al-Ulama left for Kanpur where he had classical Islamic knowledge simultaneously at three local Madaris, the most prominent being Dar al Ulum where he had the opportunity to study Mantiq under the famous scholar Shaykh Ahmad Hasan Kanpuri (d.1322 A.H / 1904 C.E) and it was here that he also completed studying Hidayah under Shaykh Ubaidullah Punjabi (d.1343 A.H / 1925 C.E). The other schools from which Malik al-Ulama benefited were Madrasa Imdad al Ulum where he studied under Shaykh Qazi Abdur Razzak (d.1946 C.E), who was the Murid (disciple) and Khalifa of Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki Chishti and Madrasa Ahsan al Madaris. The zeal for acquiring Religious Knowledge once again forced Malik al-Ulama to go to Pili Bhit at the doorstep of his dear Hadith teacher Shaykh al Muhaddithin for further spiritual guidance and benefit.
In 1321 A.H / 1903 C.E Malik al-Ulama joined the study circle of Shaykh Ghulam Yasin Deobandi at Madrasa Misbah al Tahzib but left shortly after he came to know Shaykh Ghulam’s Doctrinal differences with Ahl us Sunnah wal Jamah.
Imam al-Akbar Ahmad Rida Khan Muhaddith Bareilvi
After completing his studies under Shaykh al Muhaddithin Wasi Ahmad Surati Malik al-Ulama visited Bareily in 1321 A.H / 1903 C.E and gave the Pledge of Allegiance (Baiyah) to Imam Ahmad Rida Khan in the Qadriya Barkatiya tariqah of Tasawwuf. Malik al-Ulama’s chief efforts along with Shaykh Hasan Raza Khan (younger brother of Imam Ahmad Rida), Hujjat al Islam Shaykh Hamid Raza Khan (elder son of Imam Ahmad Rida), and Shaykh Sayyid Muhammad Ameerullah Shah led to the establishment of Madrasa Manzar al Islam under the patronage of Imam Ahmad Rida Khan in 1322 A.H / 1904 C.E at Bareily. Malik al-Ulama and Shaykh Sayyid Abdur Rasheed Azimabadi were the first students of Manzar al Islam.
Malik al-Ulama studied the following books under Imam Ahmad Rida at Manzar al Islam: Sahih al Bukhari, the Six principles of Euclid, Tashrih al Aflak, Sharh Chughmini and Risalah Qushayriya and Awarif al Ma’arif in Tasawwuf.
Among his other teachers at Manzar al Islam were Shaykh Sayyid Basheer Ahmad Aligarhi, Shaykh Sayyid Ameerullah Shah Bareilvi, Shaykh Hamid Hasan Rampuri and Shaykh Hasan Raza Khan Bareilvi. In 1325 A.H / 1907 C.E, in the presence of a large number of scholars Malik al-Ulama was awarded the Certificates of Specialisation (Sanad) and Authorization (Ijazah) at the hands of Shaykh Makhdum Shah Hayat Ahmad Qadri.
Malik al-Ulama commanded unique capabilities of learning intricate and complex sciences due to which he held an esteemed position among contemporary scholars. He further studied Ilm al Hayyat, Ilm al Tauqeet, Ilm al Jafr, Ilm al Taksir and Ilm al Riyazi under Imam Ahmad Rida.
Imam al-Huda Ahmad Rida was impressed by Malik al-Ulama’s strong and distinguished acumen to serve Islam and Ahl us Sunnah. In 1325 A.H / 1907 C.E Sayyidi Imam Ahmad Rida gave him the Khilafa and Ijazah in the Qadriya Barkatiya tariqah of Tasawwuf and Hadith and awarded the titles of Fazil e Bihar and Malik al-Ulama.
Imam Ahmad Rida Khan used to love Malik al-Ulama dearly and considered him as his own son. He wrote some 43 letters exclusively to Malik al-Ulama + 2 letters to Shaykh Khalifa Tajuddin Lahori and Shaykh Haji Muhammad Layal Khan Qadri Razvi Madrasi in which Malik al-Ulama finds special mention. This is the highest number of letters ever written to any one by Imam Ahmad Rida Khan and in these letters he sometimes addresses Malik al-Ulama as “Habibi wa Waladi wa Qurrat al Ayni (My Beloved Son and Coolness of my Eyes)” and some times as “Waladi al A’az Hami us Sunan wa Mahi al Fitan (My Son who Protects the Sunnah and Fights the Heresies)”. In another letter Sayyidi Imam Ahmad addresses him as “Jaan e Padar” and “Jaan e Bahtar”.
Imam Ahmad Rida Khan wrote Qasida 'Zikr al Ashab wa Dua al Ahbab' better known as 'Qasida al Istimdad' in 1337 A.H / 1919 C.E. This Qasida contains 360 lines in Urdu in which some 132 rhyming words are repeated only once in the poem and those rhyming words which are repeated occur only 9 lines after its initial rendering! This Qasida is a glowing proof of the Imam’s mastery in the sciences of ‘Qasaid’. In this very Qasida, Imam Ahmad Rida Khan after mentioning his son Hujjat al Islam Hamid Raza Khan Qadri and his closest Khalifa Eid al Islam Abdus Salam Qadri Jabalpuri mentions Malik al-Ulama as follows:
Merey Zafar ko Apni Zafar Dey
Is Sey Shikastayn Khatey ye Hain!
After mentioning Malik al-Ulama’s name Imam Ahmad mentions Sadr al Shariyah Mufti Amjad Ali Qadri Razvi A’zami, Sadr al Afazil Sayyid al-Ulama Sayyid Nayimuddin Ashrafi Muradabadi, Alim al Rabbani Way’iz e LaSaani Sayyid Ahmad Ashraf Ashrafi Jilani Kichochavi, Sayyid al Muhaddithin Sayyid Didar Ali Shah Muhaddith Naqshbandi Alipuri, Shaykh Ahmad Mukhtar Qadri Meruthi, Muballigh al A'zam Abdul Aleem Siddiqui Qadri Meruthi, Sultan al Wayizin Abdul Ahad Qadri PiliBhiti, Shaykh Rahim Bakhsh Qadri, Shaykh Haji La’al Ali Khan Qadri, Mufti al A'zam Hind Mustafa Raza Khan Qadri Bareilvi, Burhan al Sunnah Mufti Abdul Baqi Burhan al Haq Qadri Jabalpuri, Shaykh Shafi Ahmad Qadri Bisalpuri, Sadr al-Ulama Hasnayn Raza Khan Qadri Bareilvi, etc. The Qasida contains the names of the most prominent of all the Khulafa and Students of Imam Ahmad Rida Khan with Blessings and Supplications for all of them. Malik al-Ulama’s name occurs third in this blessed list from which his excellence in the sight of Imam al-Akbar Mujaddid al A’zam can be judged.
Malik al-Ulama had very close ties with all the Sufi Khanqaahs of India especially the Khanqah and family of Makhdum Ashraf Jahangir Simnani Kichochavi. He also received Khilafah in the Qadriya Chishtiya Ashrafiya tariqah from Muhaddith al Azam Sayyid Muhammad Ashrafi Jilani Kichochavi.
Until 1329 A.H / 1911 C.E Malik al-Ulama served at Madrasa Manzar al Islam, Bareily. From 1329 A.H / 1911 C.E to 1330 A.H / 1912 C.E he taught at Madrasa Hanafiya, Arah, Allahabad. Then from 1330 A.H / 1912 C.E to 1334 A.H / 1916 C.E he was appointed as Shaykh al Fiqh and subsequently Shaykh al Tafsir at Madrasa Islamiya Shams al Huda, Patna which was founded in 1331 A.H / 1913 C.E. Shaykh Sayyid Shah Malihuddin requested Malik al-Ulama to teach at Madrasa Khanqah al Kabiriya, Sahsharam from 1331 A.H / 1913 C.E to 1338 A.H / 1920 C.E. He returned to Madrasa Islamiya Shams al Huda at Patna the same year and taught there till 1369 A.H / 1951 C.E. In 1365 A.H / 1947 C.E he was appointed principal (Shaykh al Kulliya) of Shams al Huda.
At the request and instance of Shaykh Sayyid Shah Shahid Husayn, he inaugurated Jami'ah Latifiya Bahr al Ulum on 21st Shawwal al Mukarram 1371 A.H / 1953 C.E at Kathyar, Bihar and until 1378 A.H / 1960 C.E he was the chief patron of this Jami'ah.
Students of Malik al-Ulama
The famous student of Malik al-Ulama from Jami'ah Latifiya is Shaykh Khwaja Muzaffar Husayn Razvi Purnavi and among other students are Shaykh Abdur Rauf Qadri Balyavi, Shams al-Ulama Sayyid Shamsuddin Ja'fari Qadri Razvi Jaunpuri, Shaykh Muhammad Zahur Ahmad Nayimi Muradabadi, Shaykh Nizamuddin Balyavi Allahabadi, Shaykh Yahya Balyavi and his son Shaykh Dr. Sayyid Mukhtaruddin Ahmad Arzu Qadri.
Malik al-Ulama was engaged in Debates with all the major and leading sub sects of Wahhabiya in India. He also debated the Non Muslim organisations like Arya Samaj and other Christian Missionary groups.
Imam al Huda Ahmad Rida Khan deputised Malik al-Ulama to Ferozpur, Mewat to have a debate with some miscreants and when Malik al-Ulama returned victorious Imam al Huda Ahmad Rida presented him with a Madinian Jhubba (Islamic over coat) which Malik al-Ulama accepted by placing it over his head and by kissing it. There are some 9 books of Malik al-Ulama which deal with Debates and related topics.
Main Works on Malik al-Ulama
1: “Hayat e Malik al-Ulama”: Written by his son - Shaykh Dr Sayyid Mukhtaruddin Ahmad Arzu, Former Dean of Arabic Department, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. It was Published by Idara Anjum e Numaniya, Lahore, Pakistan.
2: “Malik al-Ulama Number” will be published shortly. This will span more than 500 pages and will be edited by Shaykh Allama Malik uz Zafar Sahsarami, Editor of the monthly - Al Kawthar.
3:“Jahan e Malik al-Ulama”: Published by Raza Academy, Mumbai. This Encyclopaedia on Malik al-Ulama’s life and works is recommended for reading to know his status among the Muhaddithin of his time, as he stands next only to Imam Ahmad Rida Khan in this numerous fields. This compendium contains excellent and research articles penned by the leading scholars spanning over a 1000 pages.
4:“Malik al-Ulama aur Ilm e Hadith” by Shaykh Muhammad Mahmud Qadri Ashrafi Rifaqati, Published in 4 parts by Mahnama Ashrafia, Mubarakpur, India.
Shaykh Mahmud Ahmad Qadri, the author of the famous Biographical Compendium 'Tazkirah Ulama e Ahlus Sunnah' wrote a Monologue on the contribution of Malik al-Ulama in the field of Hadith Sciences which was published in 4 parts by the monthly Journal 'Mahnama Ashrafiya', Mubarakpur, India in 1979 C.E. Shaykh Mahmud Ahmad writes that Malik al-Ulama wrote no less than 160 books in different branches of Islamic Sciences.
But unfortunately, many of Malik al-Ulama's works have been lost due to the negligence of Ahl us Sunnah in its publication drive. Here we present a list and introduction of 60+ books of Malik al-Ulama which provides sufficient proof of his intellect and proficiency in Islamic Sciences.
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MALIK AL-ULAMA'S WORKS
1. “Nafi al Bashar fi Fatawa al Zafar” (1349 A.H / 1930 C.E)
Shaykh Zafaruddin gave his first Fatwa on 8th Ramadhan al Mubarak 1322 A.H / 1904 C.E and received the general permission for issuing Fatwa from Sayyidi Imam Ahmad Rida Khan Muhaddith Bareilvi. This is a Compendium of 124 Fatawa (Judicial Verdicts) researched and edited by Shaykh Muhammad Irshad Ahmad Sahil Razvi Sahsarami and published from Bareily. The Fatawa also includes 6 other major monologues. In Print.
Shaykh Sayyid Mukhtaruddin Ahmad in the biography of Malik al-Ulama writes that the total Fatawa in 'Nafi al Bashar' were 1573 Fatawa (Kitab al Taharah= 90 +, Kitab al Salat= 431+, Kitab al Zakat= 45 +, Kitab al Sawm= 7 + etcetera). It is important to note that there are two different Fatawa Collections of Malik al-Ulama with two different names i.e. 'Nafi al Bashar' and 'Majmu al Fatawa'. Most probably the second collection i.e. 'Majmu al Fatawa' which had 124 Fatawa was published recently under the name of ‘Nafi al Bashar fi Fatawa al Zafar' instead of its former name.
2. “Jami al Razvi al Ma’ruf bi Sahih al Bihari”
Amir al Mu'minin fil Hadith Shaykh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Qadri Dahlavi (958-1052 A.H) was the first major Indian scholar who wrote a Hadith work in the support and defence of Fiqh al Hanafi titled "Fath al Mannan fi Tayid al Nu'man". The famous "Uqud al Jawahir al Munifah fi Addalah Abu Hanifa" by Shaykh Sayyid Murtuza Zubaydi Husayni Bilgrami (1145-1205 A.H) comes next in importance.
The first major collection of Hadith in the Indian subcontinent in accordance with the Hanafi 'Usul al Hadith' (Principles of Hadith) was "Athar al Sunan" by Shaykh Zaheer Ahsan Shawq Bihari (1278-1322 A.H), but the work abruptly ends at 'Bab fi Ziyarah al Qubur al Nabi(SallAllahu Alayhi wa Sallam)', as the compiler could not collect Hadith after 1318 A.H as he seriously became ill and passed away in 1322 A.H. Athar al Sunan spans 311 pages and was published for the first time from 'Qawmi Press, Lukhnow', it was welcomed and appreciated by the leading Ahl us Sunnah Hanafiya scholars which led it to be included in the syllabus of Madaris that were in Bihar. Though Athar al Sunan proofed itself as an important and excellent approach towards Hadith and Athar which are important according to the Hanafiya’s Usul al Fiqh and Usul al Hadith, it was incomplete and had very few Hadiths. This was the reason that it could not in any way silence the Wahhabiya La Madhabiya (Ahle Hadith) in maligning and degrading Siraj al Umm
ah Imam al A'zam Abu Hanifa Nu'man bin Sabit (80-150 A.H) and his Mastery in Ilm al Hadith (Hadith Sciences) and Fiqh (Jurisprudence).
Among others, the contemporary Ahlus Sunnah Hanafi scholars who refuted the Wahhabiya menace and expounded the status of Imam al A'zam in Hadith and Fiqh were Shaykh al Muhaddithin Wasi Ahmad Muhaddith Naqshbandi Surati, Amir al Mu'minin fil Hadith Imam al Akbar Ahmad Rida Khan Muhaddith Bareilvi and Shaykh Abdul Hayy Muhaddith Farangi Mahali Lukhnavi in their numerous works devoted in the field of Hadith and Fiqh Sciences, which they wrote in retaliation and refutation of the Wahhabiyan works which were directed towards the Hanafi Fiqh and its founder.
These Hanafi Hadith Stalwarts were succeeded by the students of Shaykh al Muhaddithin and Imam al Akbar Ahmad Rida Khan. Prominent among whom were the below:
1. Taj al Muhaddithin Sadr al Shariyah Amjad Ali Qadri A'zami who authored "Bahar al Shariyat" which contains over 3,500 Hadiths in proof and evidence of Fiqh al Hanafi.
2. Faqih al A'zam Abu Yusuf Muhammad Sharif Muhaddith Kotlavi who authored numerous research Articles (Maqalat) and published them under the titles "Fiqh al Faqih", "Dalail al Masail" and in the monthly Journal 'Al Faqih', Amritsar.
3. Muhaddith al Azam Hind Sayyid Muhammad Ashrafi Jilani Kichochavi who mainly refuted the Ghayr Muqalldin Wahhabiya through his numerous debates and speeches and by authoring books like ‘Taqwal Qulub’.
4. Malik al Muhaddithin Fazil e Bihar Sayyid Muhammad Zafaruddin Muhaddith Bihari in " Jami al Razvi al Ma'ruf bi Sahih al Bihari " in which he compiled thousands of Hadiths and Athar.
Malik al-Ulama started writing and compiling his Magnum Opus Jami al Razvi in 1337 A.H / 1919 C.E and planned to finish it in 24 parts in 6 Volumes and with each volume spanning approximately 1000 pages in accordance with the Hanafi Usul al Fiqh and Hadith. He initially named this compendium as "Sunan al Razvi" but later on as the collection of Hadith grew voluminous; he named it “Jami al Razvi”.
The Muqaddamah of Jami al Razvi on Usul al Hadith in 32 sections spanning 25 pages is a revised edition of his "Al Ifadat al Razviya" (1344 A.H / 1925 C.E> which he learnt and studied under Imam al Muhaddithin Ahmad Rida Khan Bareilvi on Usul al Hadith.
The First (1) volume entirely deals with 'Kitab al Aqaid', this volume was hard for the general-Ulama and Ummah to understand and derive rulings without its commentary and explanation while the Hadiths contained in other volumes were comparatively more important as regards to their general need, easiness in understanding, apart from being beneficial in day to day Fiqhi issues. Therefore, the first volume was not published.
The Second (2) volume deals with 'Kitab al Taharah' and 'Kitab al Salat' and was published in four (4) parts.
The first (i) part Kitab al Taharah itself contains a whooping 2234 Hadiths and spans 220 pages. This was published from the city of Agra in 1931 C.E. The next three parts comprised of Kitab al Salat and were published from 1932 C.E to 1937 C.E from Patna.
The second (ii) part contains 3068 Hadiths spanning on 288 pages, the third (iii) part contains 2136 Hadiths spanning 216 pages, the fourth (iv) part contains 1849 Hadiths spanning 239 pages.
Thus the Second (2) volume alone contains a total of 9,286 Hadiths spanning 960 pages! This volume alone buries the myth of Ghayr Muqallidin and other distracters of Hanafiya that Fiqh al Hanafi is a mere collections of opinions of Imam al azam and his students and is not based on the Hadith of RasulAllah (SallAllahu Alayhi wa Sallam) and Athaar of Sahaba. This Volume was reprinted in 1992 C.E from Mumbai, India.
The Third (3) volume consists of 'Kitab al Zakah', 'Kitab al Hajj' and 'Kitab al Sawm'. The Fourth (4) volume consists of 'Kitab al Nikah' to 'Kitab al Waqf'. The Fifth (5) volume 'Kitab al Buyu', to 'Kitab al Ghasab'. The Sixth (6) volume contains 'Kitab al Shifa' to 'Kitab al Faraiz'. The Raza Foundation, Jami'ah Nizamiya Razviya based in Lahore is editing and working on the Volumes 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6.
Jami al Razvi took the scholarly circles of the Indian subcontinent by storm especially the Hanafiya Scholars. Critical and Favourable Reviews by almost all the leading scholars of Ahl us Sunnah appeared in the Journals and Newspapers. Among the Ahl us Sunnah who hailed the work as Magnum Opus Hadith collection of Hanafiya were: (i). Shaykh Saeed al Rahman Khan, (ii). Bahr al Ulum Shaykh Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui Qadri Hyderabadi, the author of 'Tafsir al Siddiqui' and Former Professor and Dean of Faculty of Islamic Studies, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India. (iii). Shaykh Sayyid Hyder Waliullah Qadri of Jami'ah Latifiya, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. (iv). Shaykh Sayyid Shah Muhyuddin Bihari, (v). Shaykh Hyder Sharif of Madrasa Nizamiya Imdad al Ma'arif, Hyderabad. (vi).Hakeem al Ummah Mufti Ahmad Yaar Khan Ashrafi Nayimi Badayuni, the author of 'Tafsir al Nayimi' and 'Mirat al Manajih fi Sharh Mishkat al Masabih'. (vii) Sayyid al Mutakallimin Sayyid Sulayman Ashraf Qadri Bihari, the author of 'Al Mubin' and Former Professor and Dean of Islamic Studies, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. (viii). Hafiz al Millah Hafiz Abdul Aziz Qadri Ashrafi Muhaddith Mubarakpuri, the founder of 'Jami'ah al Ashrafiya', Mubarakpur, India. (ix). Faqih al A'zam Muhammad Sharif Muhaddith Qadri Kotlavi in the monthly Journal 'Al Faqih'. (x). Shaykh Shah Habib al Haq, Patna and (xi). Shaykh Ali Asghar Ja'fari of Madrasa Islah al Muslimin, Patna.
Jami al Razvi was also praised by the Wahhabiya Deobandiya scholars (i).Mawlana Syed Sulaiman Nadvi of Nadwat al-Ulama, Lukhnow, India. (ii).Mawlana Abdul Majid Daryabadi. The above two are the famous Khulafa of Wahhabi Supremo Mawlvi Ashraf Ali Thanvi. (iii). Mawlana Saeed Ahmad Akbarabadi, the chief student and khalifa of Shaykh al Hadith of Wahhabiya Mawlana Anwar Shah Kashmiri. (iv) The chief of the Wahhabiya La Madhabiya (Salafiya /Ahle Hadith) in the subcontinent Mawlana Sanaullah Amritsari also praised Malik al-Ulama in his monthly Journal 'Ahle Hadith', Amritsar, India and (v). Shaykh Shah Izzuddin Nadvi of Nadwat al-Ulama, Lukhnow, India.
3. “Tanvir al Misbah lil Qiyam Inda Hayya alal Falah” (1330 A.H / 1912 C.E)
Written in Urdu, this book contains the verifications and endorsements of 181 Hanafi scholars of the Indian subcontinent and spans 74 pages dealing with the appropriate time for standing for Salah during Iqamah (second call for prayer) according to Hanafi Jurisprudence. In print. This book is also included in the new edition of Fatawa al Zafar.
4. “Eid ka Chand” (1370 A.H / 1951 C.E)
This book is in Urdu regarding the Ruyat e Hilal (moon sighting) and its different Masail.
5. “Tuhfat al Ahbab fi Fath al Kawat wal Bab” (1337 A.H / 1919 C.E)
6. “A’lam al Sajid bi Sarf Jilud al Azhiyat fil Masajid” (1325 A.H / 1907 C.E)
Written in Urdu, this book deals with Sharai’ commandments regarding the construction of Masjid with the sale of sacrificed animal skins.
7. “Nusrat al Ashab bi Aqsam Isaal al Sawab” (1354 A.H / 1935 C.E)
One of the most authoritative and extensive works on the subject of ‘Isaal al Sawab’ (conveying the reward to the Dead). This book was written in response to the questions forwarded by the famous Heretical Ahle Quran Scholar Mawlana Sayyid Muhiuddin Tamanna Bhawalpuri (1888-1974 C.E). Spanning 198 pages in Urdu, it was published in India in the new edition of Fatawa al Zafr from Bareily and in Pakistan by Maktaba Jamal e Karam, Lahore.
Malik al-Ulama stated the facts and proofs clearly in his unique style and adduced the permissibility of this virtuous act from the Holy Quran, the authentic Hadith of the Beloved Muhammad ~sal AllahuAlayhiwaSallam~ and the practice of the Salaf along with the position of Imam al A’zam Abu Hanifa Nu’man bin Sabit (80-150 A.H) and his noble student Imam Abu Yusuf in the light of Imam Abu Hanifa’s Wasiya (will) to his son Imam Hammad bin Abu Hanifa.
Malik al-Ulama describes some 25 distinct methods of ‘Isaal al Sawab’ which is an indication of his mastery in the field of Religious Sciences.
8. “Mawahib Arwah al Quds al Kashf Hukm al Urs” (1323-4 A.H / 1905 C.E)
Spanning 74 pages in Urdu, Shaykh Zafaruddin presents powerful proofs on the justification of Urs i.e. celebrating the Death Anniversary of AwliyaAllah. This is the best of all books available on this topic.
Madrisa Islamiya Shamsul Huda (Patna) where Malik al-Ulama served for almost 30 years.
9. “Al Qawl al Azhar fil Azan bain Yadi al Mimbar” (1333 A.H / 1915 C.E)
This book was in Urdu written in response to a question, unfortunately now lost.
10. “Al Hussam al Maslul ala Munkir Ilm al Rasul” (1323 A.H / 1905 C.E)
11. “Zafaruddin al Jayyid” (1323 A.H / 1905 C.E)
12. “Sharh Kitab al Shifa bi Tareef Huquq al Mustafa” (1324 A.H / 1906 C.E)
Shaykh Zafaruddin started this work in 1324 A.H but it was left incomplete due to his untimely death in 1382 A.H / 1962 C.E. Had it been completed it would have been the master ‘Sharh’ (explanation) of Kitab al Shifa surpassing all previous ‘Shuruhat’ (Explanations and Annotations).
13. “Mubin al Huda fi Nafi Imkan Misl al Mustafa” (1324 A.H / 1906 C.E)
14. “At Ta’liq alal Quduri” (1325 A.H / 1907 C.E)
15. “Bist al Rahata fil Hizr wal Ibahata” (1326 A.H / 1908 C.E) [Fiqh / Usul al Fiqh]
16. “Al Fayz al Razvi fi Takmil al Hamvi” (1326 A.H / 1908 C.E) [Fiqh / Usul al Fiqh]
17. “Shikast Safahat” (1326 A.H / 1908 C.E)
This book was written in Urdu by Malik ul Ulama after coming back victorious from the Debates held at Ferozpur, Mewat, India. This book deals with the proceedings that took place during the debate.
18. “Al Mujammal al Mua’did li Talifat al Mujaddid” (1327 A.H / 1909 C.E)
Malik al-Ulama compiled the Chronological Bibliography of the 350 books written by the Sayyidi Shaykh Imam Ahmad Rida Khan Muhaddith Hanafi Qadri Bareilvi (May Allah sanctify his secrets) on more than fifty branches of knowledge which shows the encyclopaedic knowledge of the erudite Imam pertaining to ancient, modern and current sciences along with oriental learning. This book was written during the lifetime of Sayyidi Imam Ahmad Rida some 13 years before his demise.
Imam Ahmad Rida was a genius author having started writing from a very young age. His first book was the Arabic commentary (sharh) of Hidaya al Nahv, which he wrote at the age of 10 years. The second book was “Zau’ al Nihaya fi A’lam al Humaddid al Hidaya” in Arabic which he wrote in 1285 A.H / 1868 C.E at the age of 13 years. In 1303 A.H / 1887 C.E at the age of 30 years he had completed 75 books and treatises. In 1327 A.H / 1909 C.E this number increased to 500 major works. Apart from these extraordinary contributions, the Imam had written annotations and commentaries on more than 150 Hadith books.
Noori Masjid at Madrisa Islamiya Shamsul Huda (Patna) where Malik al-Ulama used to offer Salah (Prayers).
19. “Zafaruddin al Tayyib” (1327 A.H / 1909 C.E)
20. “Sijim al Kanzah alal Kalab al Mumtarah” (1328 A.H / 1910 C.E)
21. “An Nabras li Dafa’a Zalam al Minhas” (1329 A.H / 1911 C.E)
22. “Al Jawahir wa al Yawaqeet fi Ilm al Tauqeet” (1330 A.H / 1912 C.E)
23. “At Tahqiq al Mubin li Kalimat al Tauhin” (1330 A.H / 1912 C.E)
24. “Ateeb al Aksir fi Ilm al Taksir” (1330 A.H / 1912 C.E)
25. “At Ta’liq ala Shuruh al Mughni” (1331 A.H / 1913 C.E)
26. “Dafa’a al Khilaf min Bayn al Ahnaf” (1332 A.H / 1914 C.E)
27. “Khair al Suluk fi Nasab al Maluk” (1333 A.H / 1915 C.E)
28. “Nuzul al Sakinata bi Asanid wa Ijazat al Mutayyana” (1333 A.H / 1915 C.E>
29. “Jawahir al Bayan fi Tarjumah Khayrat al Hisan” (1333 A.H / 1915 C.E>
30. “Kashf al Sutur an Manazirah Rampur” (1334 A.H / 1916 C.E)
About the Debates that were held at Rampur with the Wahhabiya, India.
31. “Ganjinai’ Manazirah” (1334 A.H / 1916 C.E)
This book is regarding the Debate with the Wahhabiya held at Calcutta, India.
32. “Taqrib” (1335 A.H / 1917 C.E)
33. “Tahzib” (1335 A.H / 1917 C.E) [Falsafa / Philosophy]
34. “Wafiya” (1335 A.H / 1917 C.E)
35. “Badr al Islam li Miqat Kulli as Salat wal Siyam” (1335 A.H / 1917 C.E)
36. “Mua’zin al Awqat” (1335 A.H / 1917 C.E)
This book contains Takhrij (sourcing) of Time for Salah for 10 cities.
37. “A’afiya” (1335 A.H / 1917 C.E)
38. “Nazm al Mabani fi Huruf al Ma’ani” (1337 A.H / 1919 C.E)
39. “Tuhfat al Ahbar fi Akhbar al Akhyar” (1337 A.H / 1919 C.E)
This book was his compilation of biographical notes on the Awliya and Ulama of India, expanding an earlier work on this theme by Shaykh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dahlavi.
40. “Al Aksir fi Ilm al Taksir” (1337 A.H / 1919 C.E)
41. “Surur al Qalb al Mahzun fi al Sabr an Nur al Uyun” (1338 A.H / 1920 C.E)
42. “Nadwat al-Ulama” (1338 A.H / 1920 C.E)
43. “Hadi al Hidayatah li Tark al Mawalatah” (1339 A.H / 1921 C.E)
44. “Tauzih al Falak Ma’ruf bi Sallim al Sama’a” (1340 A.H / 1921 C.E)
45. “A’lam al A’lam bi Ahwal al Arab Qabl al Islam” (1341 A.H / 1922 C.E)
46. “Nihayat al Muntaha fi Sharh Hidayat al Mubtada” (1343 A.H / 1924 C.E)
47. “Al Ifadat al Razvia” (1344 A.H / 1925 C.E)
48. “Dilchasp Mukalma” (1347 A.H / 1928 C.E)
49. “Tahsil al Usul ila Ilm al Usul” (1348 A.H / 1929 C.E) [Fiqh / Usul al Fiqh]
50. “Tanvir al Siraj fi Zikr al Mairaj” (1353 A.H / 1934 C.E)
This is one of the greatest works of Tafsir on a single Ayah of the Holy Quran
i.e. The Ayah of Mairaj al Nabi (SallAllahu Alayhi wa Sallam) in Surah Bani
Israil (#17), Part # 15, Verse # 1." Glory be to Him who took His bondman
(Muhammad ) for Isra (the exalted night visit to the Heavens) by night from the
Sacred Mosque (Masjid al Haram) to the Mosque of Aqsa (Masjid al Aqsa), the
surroundings of which We have blessed that We might show him some of Our grand
Signs. Surely, He alone is the All Hearing, the All Knowing".
Malik al-Ulama every year on the occasion of Mairaj al Nabi (SallAllahu Alayhi wa Sallam) used to give sermon on a part of Ayah of Mairaj on the invitation of Shaykh Sayyid Hameeduddin (d.1364 A.H), the Sajjadah Nashin of Khanqah Shaykh Shah Sayyid Ruknuddin Ishq (d.1203 A.H) at their Khanqah. Malik al-Ulama's sermons used to be written down by his students and afterwards he used to recheck and approve them. First year Malik al-Ulama gave sermon on "Bismillah hir Rahman nir Rahim" only, the Second (2) year he gave sermon only on the word "Subhan", the Third (3) year on the word "Al Lazee", the Fourth (4) year on the word "Isra", the Fifth (5), Sixth (6) and Seventh (7) year (all three years) he gave sermon only on the word "Bi Abdihi"! The Eight (8) and Ninth (9) year on the word "Laylan", the Tenth (10) and Eleventh (11) year on the word "Min" and its relation with Prophet Muhammad (SallAllahu Alayhi wa Sallam)!
The manuscript of the sermon given in the Twelfth (12) year is not available. Most probably the following years he gave lectures on the words "Masjid il Haram" and "Masjid il Aqsa". Each sermon used to last 2-3 hours attended by leading Mufassirin and Muhaddithin of India.
Malik al-Ulama each year with the permission of Shaykh Sayyid Hameeduddin used to invite other leading scholars of the subcontinent to this noble gathering on the occasion of Mairaj. Thus Shaykh Sayyid Shah Qamar al Huda Mongeri; Shaykh Mushtaq Ahmad Kanpuri (d.1385 A.H / 1963 C.E) of Madrasa al Aliya, Kolkata; Shaykh Abdul Wahid Badayuni Qadri; Muhaddith al A'zam Hind Sayyid Muhammad Ashrafi Jilani Kichochavi (d.1383 A.H / 1963 C.E); Shaykh Abdul Hamid Qadri Badayuni (d.1390 A.H /1970 C.E); Shaykh Abdul Majeed Bareilvi (d.1362 A.H /1943 C.E); Shaykh Sayyid Wasi Ahmad Nayimi Sahsarami of Jami'ah Nayimiya, Muradabad; Sadr al Afazil Sayyid Nayimuddin Qadri Ashrafi Muradabadi (d.1367 A.H / 1948 C.E) and; Shaykh Qazi Shah Muhammad Ahsan al Haq Nayimi Ashrafi were invited respectively.
The manuscripts of all the Sermons are present except the Twelfth Sermon. This series of sermons started in 1353 A.H / 1934 C.E and ended in 1365 A.H / 1946 C.E. Only the sermon of Eleventh (11) year i.e. 1365 A.H / 1946 C.E was first published from Razvi Dar al Kutub, Lahore and was reprinted in 1978 C.E. Unfortunately, the rest of the series is still un-published.
51. “Anwar al Alama’ Min ash Shams al Bazagha”(1357 A.H / 1938 C.E)[Falsafa / Philosophy]
52. “Al Fawaid al Tamma fi Ajubat al Umur al Amma”(1357 A.H / 1938 C.E)[Aqaid / Kalam]
53. “Jami’ al Aqwal fi Ruwiyat al Hilal” (1357 A.H / 1938 C.E)
54. “Mashriqi Oor Simt e Qibla” (1358 A.H / 1939 C.E)
55. “Mawlud al Razvi” (1360 A.H / 1941 C.E)
56. “Tuhfat al Azma fi Fazl al-Ulama” (1365 A.H / 1946 C.E)
57. “Sidd al Farar li Muhajiril Bihar” (1366 A.H / 1947 C.E)
58. “Chawdhviyn Sadi key Mujaddid” (1367 A.H / 1948 C.E)
59. “Hayat A’la Hazrat” (1369 A.H / 1950 C.E)
60.”An Nur wa Ziya fi Salasil al Awliya” (1382 A.H / 1962 C.E)
Demise of Malik al-Muhaddithin
Malik al-Ulama Mufti Sayyid Zafaruddin Jilani Qadri Bihari passed away on 19th Jamad al Akhir 1382 A.H corresponding to 18th November 1962 C.E at his Residence – ‘Zafar Manzil’, Patna while engrossed in Loud Zikr (Zikr e Jahri) – ‘Allah-Allah-Allah’. May Allah Sanctify his noble Soul, Ameen! His funeral prayer was led by Hazrat Allama Shah Ayyub Abdali Shahidi Rashidi Islampuri and he was laid to rest in a nearby graveyard. He was succeeded by his son – Allama Dr Sayyid Mukhtaruddin Qadri ‘Arzu’, the former head and dean of Arabic Dept at Aligarh Muslim University, India.
Scholars like Allama Mufti Mahmud Ahmad Qadri Ashrafi Rifaqati, Allama Mufti Irshad Ahmad Sahil Sahsarami Razvi Misbahi and Allama Dr Ghulam Jabir Shams Misbahi Qadri are known experts on Malik al-Ulama and hsi works.
Mazar Sharif of Malik al-Ulama and His Wife (may Allah be pleased with them) at Shah Ganj Cemetery, Patna.
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Compiled & Edited by
Basharat Ali Siddiqui Ashrafi
Ashrafiya Islamic Foundation Hyderabad, India.